Aircraft flaps are the part of the aircraft that helps create extra lift during a flight takeoff. By increasing the camber of the wing, the upper limit of lift of a wing increases and enables the aircraft to safely maintain flight at lower speeds. The deployment of flaps also differs on the type of flap that an aircraft has. The four basic types of flaps include plain, split, fowler, and slotted.

The plain flap is one that is a hinged portion mounted on the front of the flap. Plain flaps help lower the trailing edge of a wing and raise the curvature, leading to increased lift. Plain flaps are the more simplistic of the differing flaps. Split flaps, on the other hand, are attached to the bottom of the wing where a portion hinges downward and the upper portion remains in place. This leads to increased drag as compared to the plain flap as the airflow on the wing’s underside is distrubed.

Slotted flaps are comparable to a plain flap in that the rear portion of the flap lowers downward. Unlike plain flaps however, slotted flaps have a gap in between the trailing edge and flap that leads to a greater increase in lift. Airflow separation is prevented in these types by allowing streams of air to move from underneath the wing and over the flap. Slotted flaps have a smaller amount of drag increase as compared to both plain and split flaps.

The last basic type of flap, the fowler, increase the wing’s surface area and curvature to provide large amounts of lift with minimal drag as compared to the other types of flaps. Due to their large increase of lift, fowler flaps are a very ideal type for larger aircraft.

When deploying the flaps, an aircraft will begin pitching up or down and will cause twisting action, so elevators are used to keep the plane on the set approach path. As flaps represent a great structural load on aircraft, they are only used for lower airspeeds and often aircraft that are full sized will have indicators to aid with safe flap operating ranges.


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Landing gear systems are obviously critical for an aircraft to have. After all, what goes up must inevitably come back down. More than that, however, landing gear goes through tremendous stresses in terms of heat, weight, and friction during landing procedures, and must therefore be designed and manufactured to the highest standards possible. In this blog, we’ll explore the production process for landing gear, from start to finish.

The design of landing gear begins with engineering. This entails a team of engineers and developers, and a list of requirements; the landing gear must be able to support this much weight, can only weigh so many pounds, use this much hydraulic fluid, and so on. Modern design processes involve multiple disciplines, including computer 3D modelling and simulations, physical replicas, and eventually prototyping, with constant redesigning and reiteration throughout.

Once the base design is settled on, the manufacturing process can begin. High-quality raw materials like steel and aluminum are processed through numerous machining, grinding, and drilling processes to form them into the right shape, then go through heat treatments to harden and temper the metal and improve its durability. Computer-driven automation helps immensely throughout this process, removing the possibility of human error. Once the body of the landing gear is shaped and treated, the surface goes through a series of chemical treatments and painting to protect it from heat, corrosion, and other environmental factors.

After manufacturing, the parts go through an exhaustive series of quality checks, which involve high-tech computer instruments measuring and inspecting the components. Laser scanners are used to examine the surface of a landing gear for flaws that could lead to a failure in use, for example. These 3D scanning systems are incredibly precise, and can pick out deviations as small as a single millimeter.

Once the components have passed inspection, assembly comes. The landing gear assembly consists of several sub-assemblies, which are put together first before the entire body of the landing gear is constructed. State-of-the-art assembly lines are used for this process, ensuring a swift and efficient assembly.

Once everything is put together, the landing gear goes through a series of real-world simulations and tests to ensure it is up to specifications, before being sent to the aircraft’s assembly lines for integration into the aircraft’s body.


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Modern aircraft make use of multiple advanced systems for flying like GPS, ADS-B, and LCD display to the point that an aircraft can practically fly itself. While greater cockpit automation undeniably makes flying safer, these systems can also cause problems if they are not used properly and monitored closely. In this blog, we’ll break down several tips for managing cockpit automation and maintaining safety during flight.

First, always know your equipment and understand how the systems work. Don’t just know how to input values into the GPS system, know what the system does with those inputs. Understand the aircraft’s automation, so that when something does go wrong with the automation, you understand exactly what the problem is, and can fix it.

Second, pre-program and triple-check. Don’t wait until flight-time to enter data into the GPS or program the flight management system. Ease the workload and do it on the ground before departure. The less time you spend looking at the computer, the more time you can spend looking for traffic or monitoring your instruments. And of course, be diligent, and double and triple-check your inputs to make sure you give the computer the right information.

During the most critical moments of flight, such as takeoff and landing, maintain a sterile cockpit. That means that conversation between the pilot and copilot and tasks they are performing should be related only to the task of flying the aircraft, and nothing else. Since most accidents occur during these phases, it is critical that pilots focus exclusively on the task at hand and maintain their situational awareness.

If something does malfunction, it is better to keep your head up and focus on flying the aircraft rather than looking down and trying to fix it. If you spend twenty minutes looking down at the GPS screen trying to resolve an error, that’s twenty minutes you aren’t watching the skies or your instruments. Remember, the GPS is there to help you, not fly the plane for you. If it isn’t helping, don’t bother with it.

Lastly, be critical, not complacent. Cockpit automation lets the pilot be more accurate, but it also contributes to complacency and the pilot becoming an inactive participant in flight. Inactivity leads to boredom and inattention, which can easily lead to an accident. It is therefore critical that a pilot continuously observe the aircraft and all on-board technology to ensure it is doing what they expect it to do.

At ASAP 3Sixty, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the cockpit instrument systems and parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries.


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As aircraft have grown more complex over the decades, it is inevitable that their warning systems have become more complex as well. If a malfunction or error occurs, the pilot or pilots need to be informed, after all. But in the early years of aviation, these warning systems were haphazardly scattered throughout the cockpit, often with no indication of a problem’s severity.

To bring some order to this chaos, designers began adding a master annunciator panel to the aircraft’s cockpit. If a fault or error of any kind is detected, a prominent light will turn on in the cockpit, which then draws the crew’s attention to the master annunciator panel. On this panel, individually labeled and color-coded lights indicate the exact problem or its severity. Typically, red will be used for serious problems that require immediate action from the crew. Orange/amber-colored lights are for issues that require crew awareness, but not necessarily an immediate reaction. Finally, blue lights, or advisory or agreement lights, are there to let the crew know that something is working as intended (such as de-icing equipment or fuel crossfeed valves) and to remind the crew to turn that system off when it is no longer needed.

Later-generation turbine aircraft take advantage of modern technology to update their warning systems to the 21st century. Boeing’s 777, for instance, uses a Crew Alerting System (CAS) that integrates multiple kinds of visual, audio, and tactile cues to draw attention to various situations. An important part of the CAS is the Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System, or EICAS. The CAS will first try to get the crew’s attention by turning on master caution or warning lights on either side of the forward instrument panel, as well as making a beeping noise, sound a bell or siren, or generate a voice message. At the same time, a text message will display in the EICAS display screen, located in the center of the instrument panel, which describes the condition, such as Fire Engine R to indicate a fire detected in the right engine. These messages always correspond with the titles of the emergency checklist needed to handle the situation. CAS can also determine the severity of multiple malfunctions or issues and decide which needs the most attention at the moment


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Failures within an exhaust system can lead to serious issues such as poisoning, power loss, and fires. So, it’s extremely important to make sure that all parts in the system are in good condition. Although it’s imperative to get it checked out by a professional periodically, there are a few things you can do to ensure that there are not any immediate issues that need to be addressed. Here are four tips to keep in mind when inspecting your own aircraft exhaust systems.

Tip 1 :

Read through the Manufacturer Service Bulletins and Airworthiness Directives (ADs). These documents will display any common issues that would deem an aircraft not airworthy. The AD notes may also include information on when the manufacturer advises the aircraft exhaust systems to be pulled out.

Tip 2 :

Look at the exhaust system for any leaks, corrosion, pitting, or metal fatigue. If any of these are present, they need to be addressed immediately. The main sign of a leak is staining which could be black, white, red, or yellow. Corrosion can eventually lead to pinholes and thinning. It is important to pay close attention to lower areas of the system, where moisture is most often collected. In addition, the presence of blisters and bulges can indicate metal fatigue as the result of applied heat.

Tip 3:

Check all connections including seals, slip joints, and baffles. You’ll also want to make sure that clamps and gaskets are sealing properly, and that slip joints are actually slipping. Manufacturer instructions should include how to maintain, repair, or replace various connections. Be sure to check that muffler baffles are intact and not distorted, so that initial problems don’t result in obstructing the tailpipe.

Tip 4: 

Do not use lead pencils to mark the exhaust parts during inspection. Because of the combustible properties of graphite, they can lead to cracks that can create more problems if undetected.


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There are many factors that aircraft designers have to take into consideration when choosing the material used for aircraft construction. Some of these factors are strength, weight, malleability, cost, and chemical composition— which affects its susceptibility to corrosion, its thermal capacity, etc.

Aluminum has long been one of the most common materials used in aircraft construction because it’s strong, lightweight, predictable, and inexpensive. There are other materials that are stronger, such as steel and iron, but they are very heavy. Aluminum is often the best choice due to its balance between strength and weight. But new composite materials are becoming increasingly popular because they offer many of the same benefits and are even lighter. Some aluminum alloys offer the same advantages while improving some of its weaker elements— there are advantages and disadvantages to each material.

Aluminum is used in constructing aircraft skins, cowlings, structures, and interior components such as seat frames. Carbon composites are becoming popular for these applications but will need to prove their durability in flight over time. Aluminum has been proven to last throughout an aircraft's lifetime and is resistant to UV damage.

There are many factors to consider when choosing a material for aircraft construction. Designers have to strike a balance between competing requirements and choose the best material for specific applications. There is not just one suitable option for every component of an aircraft— they vary due to what their purpose is and how they react in different environments.


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There are many different options to choose from when deciding which business jet to purchase. They vary in shape, size, efficiency, range, comfort, luxury, and price point.

Gulfstream G500

The Gulfstream G500 is optimized for stylish performance, balancing speed, maneuverability, and comfort. With 8 passengers, their luggage, and a full tank of gas, the G500 will travel 5,200 nautical miles (NM) at Mach 0.85. With double the payload, the G500 can still travel a considerable distance of 4,950 nm. The aircraft’s cabin is designed to accommodate business or leisure travel; it can sit up to 19 people, sleep up to 8, and has high-speed communication and entertainment equipment. The G500 has a unique cross-section design that allows for increased mobility and comfort. The cabin’s features also help reduce the effects of jet lag. The 14 large panoramic windows bring in more natural light and fresh air is replenished every two minutes. The cabin management system allows passengers to control the environment and entertainment settings with touch-screen devices right from their seats. More luxury can be added with the option of choosing from handmade carpets of silk or cashmere, hand-stitched leather, and wood veneers. The G500 also has many storage compartments and accommodates a significant volume of luggage and accessories. 

Bombardier Global 7500

Bombardier’s Global 7500 is a luxurious long-range business jet that can seat up to 19 people, has a 7,700 nm range, and a top speed of Mach 0.925. The cabin layout is flexible and can be customized to the customer’s needs. It has four living spaces, a crew suite, and a kitchen. There are many features that increase comfort and reduce jet lag. The wings are precision-engineered for maximum flexibility and provide a stable and smooth ride for the passengers. The windows are larger and allow more natural light to enter the cabin. Optimized cabin pressurization provides a low altitude environment and the turbo heating and cooling system allows the passengers to set the perfect temperature. All of the temperature, lighting, and entertainment can be controlled from the nice touch cabin management system (CMS), the suite controllers, and the nice touch app.

Cessna Citation Longitude

The Cessna Citation Longitude has a 4-passenger range of 3,500 nm, a maximum passenger capacity of 12, and a maximum speed of Mach 0.84. This super-midsize business jet has a quiet and low altitude cabin with customizable interiors. The in-flight accessible baggage compartment allows passengers to access their belongings throughout the flight. This aircraft is also equipped with a NextGen-capable flight deck.

The Pilatus PC-24

The PC-24 is a super versatile jet (SVJ) that was engineered to be “off-road” compatible. It has an incredible level of mobility and has an outstanding short-field performance— it can hold a maximum of 11 passengers with one pilot, has a maximum range of 2,000 nm with 4 passengers, and a maximum range of 1,800 nm with 6 passengers. The cabin is easily reconfigurable and offers superior comfort and functionality. Due to its low operating costs and mobility, the PC-24 is an ideal option for a first-class ambulance.



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We all know that an aircraft has many vital components, but people typically only think about the engine, wings, or electronic components. People don’t often think about the landing gear. The aircraft landing gear is a vital component with important responsibilities. They must withstand the entire weight of the airplane during landing and takeoff, which can be as heavy as 600 tons, fully loaded.

Most landing gear have wheels, but this is typically determined by the type of aircraft and the operating conditions that the aircraft has to deal with. Planes can be retrofitted with skis for snow, or pontoons for water landings.

Landing gear can vary greatly in form, function, and name, but they all have the same basic components: shock absorbing equipment, brakes, retraction mechanisms, controls, warning devices, cowling, and fairings. All these components are necessary for proper operation and functionality of the aircraft landing gear. What’s amazing is that, often, landing gear can be retrofitted such that the aircraft can land in multiple landing configurations. Some planes, with pontoon gear for landing in water, can also be fitted with wheels that allow them to land on the ground too. For icy and snowy runways, planes can have wheels and retractable skis to make them more versatile and able to land in almost any environment.

Different Types of Landing Gear Arrangement

There are typically three types of landing gear arrangements. First is the tail wheel-type landing gear, which have two wheels in the front and one under the tail. Second is the tandem landing gear; this landing gear is set up like the tail wheel-type, but the difference is the front and back wheels are aligned on a longitudinal axis. And lastly is the tricycle-type landing gear. This type of landing gear has two wheels in the front and two wheels under the wings. All three arrangements are typical for larger aircraft such as the Boeing 747.


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Electrical connectors are the electrical-mechanical devices that join electrical terminations together to create an electrical circuit. Most connectors have two main parts, the housing and the terminals. The housing is the structure or case that contains the terminals, ensuring stability and protecting the contacts from short-circuiting and other hazards. And the terminals are the pins in a connector that provides electrical conduction to make the connections secure.

Different connectors have different features and properties that make them more ideal for certain applications. For example, keyed connectors are designed to only connect when they are in the proper orientation, preventing accidental damage and insertion into the wrong socket. On the other hand, water resistant connectors and moisture/oil resistant connectors are protected from damage caused by mild moisture or dampness.

To make choose the right connector for your needs, make sure to consider the performance parameters and physical parameters. Performance parameters like the current, voltage, and operating temperature limit what kind of operating conditions the connector can be used in. And physical parameters like contact pitch, number of contacts, and material determine what connections it can be used for and so on.

Connectors can also be categorized by level, function, and termination. The connector level is the kind of connections can be made: chip-to-package, package-to-board, etc. The connector function is the method of connection: plug and socket, rack and panel, ring and spade, etc. And the connector termination is the basis of the method used to terminate or fasten the wire to the connector: insulation displacement, crimping, etc.

Choosing the right connectors can be a challenge, but fortunately, you have us at ASAP 3Sixty.

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Electronic connectors are electromechanical devices used to quickly and easily disconnect or interrupt a circuit path. Because they have such a wide range of applications, connectors come in a variety of sizes, shapes, complexities, and quality levels to suit those applications. For example, those used in more rugged and extreme conditions require protection from vibrations, extreme temperatures, dirt, water, and contaminants.

Connectors come in pairs, male connectors which have protruding pins and female connectors which have recessed sockets. When the two come together, they “mate” and form a connection. They’re also usually polarized to prevent two incorrectly oriented connectors from mating.

Versatile and adaptable, connectors serve in many different functions and applications. Ranging from military and space to consumer electronics, there are many different types of connectors. However, they all do the same essential thing, they connect. Connectors serve as a configurable bridge for any number of electrical sources and devices. Of course, some connectors are better and more optimal than others for certain applications. Some types of electronic connectors include:

  • Blind mate connectors make it easy to safely mate connectors even if you can’t see them or when physical access to the mating connector area is limited.
  • D-sub connectors have many different applications and are known for their distinct D-shaped metal shell.
  • Hot-swap connectors don’t require the entire system to shut down, they don’t risk damage when adding, removing, or replacing components while “hot” or under load.
  • IP67 connectors are dust and water resistant, so they’re ideal for harsh environments and demanding applications.
  • Military connectors have higher durability, reliability, and precision in order to serve the many demanding requirements of military applications.
  • Modular connectors can use pre-existing blocks to arrange unique contact arrangements for user and application customizability.
  • Power connectors deliver electrical power from either A/C or D/C sources to electronic devices.
  • Press-fit connectors are designed to be pressed through a printed circuit board’s plated-through holes instead of being soldered.
  • Space connectors are perfect for the extreme conditions of spaceflight as a result of their low outgassing, non-magnetism, and extreme reliability.

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There are six basic instruments pilots use during each flight in order to control the aircraft: the airspeed indicator, artificial horizon, altimeter, turn coordinator, direction indicator, and vertical speed indicator.

The airspeed indicator (ASI) displays how quickly the aircraft is travelling. The majority of ASIs display speed in knots (kn). The colored bands around the display indicate safety information. The green band displays safe operating speeds while the white band specifies safe speeds to deploy wing flaps. The yellow band indicates the aircraft is operating at a higher speed than it is designed for and the red bar should be completely avoided.

The artificial horizon displays a fundamental view of the aircraft and wings as well as the horizon. This is used for when your vision may be compromised during flights. It indicates the direction the aircraft is heading and should be trusted more than all other senses if lost or disoriented.

The altimeter displays the aircraft’s current altitude. The large hand indicates hundreds of feet while the small hand indicates thousands. The pressure setting should be adjusted to the appropriate QNH or QFE for safe operating conditions.

The turn coordinator shows the direction that the wings are tilting. The markings located on the coordinator displays the rate of the turn. The ball located in the white box indicates whether the aircraft is balanced. The direction indicator shows the compass range. External forces do not affect this compass; however, it can be influenced by movement and vibration. The knob underneath the indicator is used to realign the instrument and must be done regularly. The vertical speed indicator (VSI) is used along with the altimeter to determine whether the aircraft is ascending or descending. This is measured in feet per minute.

ASAP 3Sixty is the premier supplier of airspeed indicator parts, altimeter parts, and direction indicators; whether new, old or hard to find, they can help you locate it. ASAP 3Sixty has a wide selection of parts to choose from and is fully equipped with a friendly staff, so you can always find what you’re looking for, at all hours of the day. If you’re interested in obtaining a quote, contact our sales department at www.asap3sixty.com.


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